Maintaining a principled ethical approach in the face of a global fertility market
A submission to the Advisory Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology
Earlier this year the Advisory Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ACART) released a background discussion paper on the “Import and Export of Gametes and Embryos.” The paper was in response to growing numbers of New Zealanders looking overseas for fertility treatment. New Zealand requirements surrounding the sourcing and use of gametes and embryos are often very different from, and in many cases more ‘restrictive’ than, other countries. In the face of differing standards, there is increasing pressure from some to loosen the restrictions on what is allowable in New Zealand. Staff of the Nathaniel Centre offered the following reflection on the current situation as part of their contribution to this debate.
Robust ethical review requires critiquing the underlying and often unexamined assumptions and convictions that shape individual and societal thinking about a particular issue. We are particularly concerned that in a society such as ours, questions relating to the common good are too easily subsumed by a distorted focus on individual autonomy. When this occurs, we can too easily fail to take full account of the fact that medical technologies, such as human assisted reproductive technologies “create their own culture of practices, institutions and discourses, and these become a powerful force that inscribes individual bodies to its own specifications.”
While we have commented on this issue on a previous occasion, it strikes us that the realities of the global fertility market have introduced a new dynamic into the debate.
A shift in ethical frameworks
A particular feature of contemporary ethical discussions on the use of assisted human reproductive technologies is the way in which the language and thinking of ‘supply and demand’ (the market) is increasingly coming to the fore. This language indicates a shift, in at least some quarters, towards viewing the creation of human life more and more as part of a framework of thinking that is typically characteristic of economic transactions. At the same time the use of such language confirms and further perpetuates such a shift in other people’s minds.
We accept that, to some degree, the use of ‘market’ language is understandable (and even unavoidable) in the context of exploring genuine questions relating to the regulation of reproductive technologies in a commercial environment. Nevertheless, we find the uncritical use of such language of great concern. Importantly, it betrays a tendency to think more and more about new human life as a ‘commodity’ that is subject above all to the desires, demands and expectations of those paying for the service – the consumers, prospective parents.
This has considerable implications for ethical reflection because the frameworks of thinking we adopt shape the way we look at and think about an issue. In particular, the influence of a market-based paradigm reinforces a particular and impoverished understanding of human freedom. In the words of the philosopher Michael Sandel, human freedom is reduced to mean “the freedom of the consumer.” Consequently, parenting is at risk of becoming reduced to little more than another extension of the consumer mentality that permeates our society.
At the same time, as human procreation becomes increasingly subject to commodification, there arises an increased sense of ‘entitlement’ to a child. From this flows a lower tolerance for regulatory interference of any kind, especially from the State. Thus, when the question of access to assisted human reproductive technologies arises there are many who ask: “What possible business is it of any ethics committee? Why should they have to apply to a bunch of interfering medicos for permission?”
The increased sense of entitlement is typically verbalised as a ‘right’ to access whatever ‘means’ are available for bringing about a child. In addition, and perhaps more worryingly, it is also increasingly framed as the right to exert a kind of consumer freedom over our children. What we mean by this is that the so-called right to a child leads people to believe they have a right to a certain type of child and therefore the right to exert ever greater degrees of control over the ‘products’ of conception.
There exists an urgent need to draw on other frameworks in order to challenge the shift in ethical discourse that is happening in our society. At the same time we need to remain clear about, and committed to, the principles that have given shape to the current New Zealand regulatory framework governing the use of assisted human reproductive technologies. To the extent that we allow a market mentality to shape our thinking it is to be expected that the principles underpinning the HART Act will start to make less sense to some people.
The threats to a principled approach to decision making
In the wake of an increased sense of entitlement, the need to protect the very narrow meaning of ‘consumer freedom’ that Sandel (and others) speak of emerges for many as the primary ethical issue. This shift in ethical focus has been further exacerbated, we believe, by the increased opportunities that now exist for prospective parents to access assisted human reproductive technologies overseas. Compared with other jurisdictions which lack the robustness of New Zealand’s regulatory system, many people are judging the HART regulatory framework to be unnecessarily and unfairly restrictive. At the same time, others who might be less inclined to see it as ‘restrictive’ are perhaps increasingly inclined to see it as espousing a once workable, but now unworkable, ideal.
Therefore, even while many of the ethical dilemmas surrounding the import and export of embryos and gametes remain largely the same as in the past, it is our view that the realities of the global fertility market pose a new and heightened challenge to responsible human procreation. Indeed, we would go so far as to suggest that what is at stake in the present debate about greater (overseas) access to human assisted reproductive technologies is ultimately nothing less than the continued viability of the current principled approach to decision making that defines the HART Act.
We understand that, already, increased numbers of New Zealanders want to travel overseas to source eggs and embryos, a situation exacerbated by the shortage of donated eggs in New Zealand. While the motivation for this may well be largely pragmatic, rather than because of a desire to circumvent the law in New Zealand, the reality is that the eggs or embryos will be, in many if not most cases, commercially sourced. Because this is in breach of what is allowed in New Zealand, we anticipate this will eventually result in increased pressure to allow commercially sourced gametes and embryos to be directly sourced from within our own country.
We have, in the past, indicated that we are sympathetic to the idea of allowing couples who have previously conceived embryos overseas to bring them into the country for the purposes of having another child that is genetically related. While our position on this remains the same, we recognise that this also has the potential to lead to increased pressure to loosen the restrictions on what is allowable in New Zealand, particularly if some of the imported embryos have been created under standards and principles that fall short of our own.
Furthermore, while there are no legal barriers to couples travelling to countries that allow for embryos to be created in ways that, for good reason, are unacceptable in New Zealand, those without the financial resources will have a case that the ethical standards in New Zealand exist only for those who lack the resources to go overseas.
On all these counts an argument can be made that the status quo, even if unwittingly, fosters a significant degree of ethical inconsistency and unfairness. Why, it will be asked, should other couples not be allowed to have the children they want when precedents exist and all that is required is a simple law change? There is, in other words, a certain inexorable logic that points towards the further liberalisation of HART law in New Zealand, including the current constraints on using imported material that does not meet current New Zealand standards.
This is why we believe that more and more people will, in the future, come to question the viability of the current New Zealand framework including the principles that underpin it.
Managing ethical inconsistency and unfairness
Those, like us, who are hesitant about further ‘opening up the market’ for embryos and gametes because of their commitment to the ethical principles upon which the current New Zealand laws are based, find themselves needing to justify a regulatory approach which allows for ever increasing degrees of ‘inconsistency’ and ‘unfairness’. We readily admit that maintenance of the status quo will involve living with a degree of ‘inconsistency’ and ‘unfairness’ for individuals/couples. How might this be justified?
The arguments in favour of greater liberalisation, as described above, ignore a vital tension. We would describe the source of this tension as originating in the ethical space that exists between the desires and rights of individuals and the welfare or ‘common good’ of the society in which we live. As noted above, one of the (often unnoticed) fundamental issues at stake is the robustness of the (economic) paradigm that is increasingly being used by many to make sense of the world in which we live. More specifically we would argue that the language and thinking associated with ‘transactions’ and ‘entitlement’ is at odds with, and has the potential to undermine, the traditional way in which peoples across many cultures and ages have thought of new human life – what we, as well as many secular philosophers and anthropologists, would describe as an approach centred on ‘gift’ and ‘givenness’. Of great concern for us is the fact that the shift to view human procreation more and more in terms of the market represents a significant departure from the way in which society has long thought about parenting and the role of children.
The very fact that granting individuals increasingly unfettered reproductive freedom will impact on societal understandings surely demands that any changes to the current regulatory system be subject to a ‘societal impact risk assessment’. This is what we find lacking in many of the arguments being put forward in favour of leaving assisted reproductive choices more and more in the hands of individuals or couples. Not unsurprisingly, the shift to consider questions about the transmission of human life within a more ‘market-based’ paradigm makes ethical questions about the societal impact (or common good) seem more and more irrelevant.
For us, the key ethical issue is not about protecting an increasingly impoverished notion of freedom centred on choice. It is more about protecting a notion of human flourishing that takes into account the effects of the accumulation of individual choices on the society in which we live, including the likely impact on the welfare of the children who are conceived and the institution of parenting. We must be wary of making changes to the current regulatory framework that are premised largely on the value and importance of individual choice. This is especially important when it can be established that such changes are being influenced by the incremental progression of a market-based paradigm into the domain of parenting and families.
We should, of course, limit individual choice only for good reason. One of the challenges we face as a society is that these reasons do not always come to the fore in contemporary debates, not because they are not important but because the particular framework we employ renders them invisible. Such reasons become apparent when we recognise the inadequacy of giving exaggerated emphasis to individual choice and embrace other frameworks of thinking.
Our position is well described by Michael Sandel when he notes:
When science moves faster than moral understanding as it does today, men and women struggle to articulate their unease. In liberal societies, they reach first for the language of autonomy, fairness, and individual rights. But this part of our moral vocabulary does not equip us to address the hardest questions posed by cloning, designer children, and genetic engineering. That is why the genomic revolution has induced a kind of moral vertigo.
And as the New Zealand Bishops have previously stated in an early Submission on the HART Act:
An over emphasis on the sufficiency of individual informed consent, as has been exemplified by a number of commentators with respect to recent debates in the bioethical area, reflects a failure to acknowledge the wider impact of technological interventions.
Finally, we appeal to ACART, in its reflections on this issue, to continue to take full account of the fact that the questions raised by human assisted reproduction are complex and have the potential for transforming the most basic of human relationships. The context which has given rise to the current debate places in jeopardy key principles at the heart of the HART Act. In particular we see that two principles are at risk; (i) the rights of children who are born to access knowledge of their origins and have a relationship with gamete donors, and (ii) a longstanding commitment to the principle that transactions involving body parts not be commercialised.
The current debate calls for a strong stand in favour of upholding the principles that underpin the HART Act. These principles have been debated at length and represent long-held cultural, social, ethical and religious values that promote human flourishing. They are also consistent with general public policy in New Zealand.
This will, in turn, mean saying ‘no’ to certain demands being made by couples or individuals, demands that may well increase as New Zealanders take advantage of the opportunities for having children, not always ethical by our standards, that exist overseas. However, we argue that the current principled approach, along with its growing perception of inconsistencies, can be seen as justified by an ongoing commitment to the common good and, above all, to the dignity and well-being of children. In which case, we will need to accept that it will become increasingly difficult to align New Zealand ethical standards with those of other countries.
In the face of globally varying ethical standards and competing principles, we would argue that the cause of ethical consistency and the well-being of children, parents and society, is best served by New Zealand working with other countries to uphold and promote the key principles that define our current regulatory framework around the use of reproductive technologies. To quote from the Consultation document: “New Zealand should not support or be seen to support, policies and practices in other countries that would be regarded as unethical in this country.”
Staff of The Nathaniel Centre
 Lindemann Nelson, Hilde. (1995). Dethroning Choice: Analogy, Personhood, and the New Reproductive Technologies. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 23, 2: 129-35.
 Sandel, M. "The Reith Lectures 2009: Genetics and Morality." A Common Morality for the Global Age: In Gratitude for What We Are Given (2009). http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00kt7rg [accessed November 3, 2009].
 Michael Laws commenting on a request by a gay couple to be surrogate parents.
 While the notion of life as a gift is a traditional Christian term, it is also arguably the basis for a common ethic without religious warrants. See, for example, the work of Havard philosopher Michael Sandel (The Case against Perfection: Ethics in the Age of Genetic Engineering. London: The Belknap Press of Havard University Press, 2007) and French-Canadian anthropologists Godbout and Caillé (The World of the Gift. Translated by D. Winkler. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1998).
 Sandel, M.J. (2007). The case against perfection. pp. 9-10.